Cryogenic Tanks

Cryogenic liquids and their storage tanks. Cryogenic tanks are used for the storage of cryogenic liquids.

Cryogenic liquids are typically liquefied gases at -150 °C or lower. Common products include oxygen, argon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and helium. Cryogenic tanks are also used for storing gases at higher temperatures, examples of which include liquefied natural gas (LNG), carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide.

These form part of gas supply systems to be used in a wide range of applications, including metal processing, medical technology, electronics, water treatment, energy generation and the food industry. Cryogenic liquids are also used for low temperature cooling applications, such as engineering shrink fitting, food freezing and the storage of bio-samples.

Cryogenic tanks are thermally insulated, typically with a vacuum jacket, designed and manufactured to a high specification following international design codes. They can be fixed, mobile or transportable.

Static cryogenic tanks are designed for use in a fixed location, however this does include those mobile small tanks mounted on wheels for use within workshop and laboratories. Static cryogenic tanks are generally classified as pressure vessels, as such new tanks and their associated systems will be manufactured and put into service in accordance with the Pressure Equipment (Safety) Regulations. There are also a range of non-pressurised open neck vessels (Dewar flasks) available for those applications requiring direct access to the liquid. The tanks come in a range of sizes, pressures and flow rates to meet the users’ varying requirements.

Tanks that are, or are intended to be, used to transport cryogenic liquids have to comply with the Carriage of Dangerous Goods and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment Regulations.


Use, operation, maintenance and disposal of cryogenic tanks

Cryogenic tanks have to be operated and maintained in a manner that complies with all relevant legislation, for example, the Pressure Systems Safety Regulations for static tanks or the Carriage of Dangerous Goods and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment Regulations for transportable tanks. Cryogenic tanks have to be maintained and managed by designated competent persons.

For static tanks the Regulations require cryogenic tanks to undergo regular inspection, routine maintenance and periodic formal examination. An inspection and maintenance regime should be drawn up to ensure the tank is in a safe condition to allow correct operation at all times between the formal examination periods. This will include a Written Scheme of Examination which has to be drawn up by a competent person(s) with periodic formal examinations conducted in accordance with the scheme (refer to BCGA CP 39).

Transportable tanks require periodic inspection and testing, this can only be carried out by an Inspection Body, who in the UK is authorised by the National Competent Authority, Department for Transport (DfT). Information on Inspection Bodies who have been appointed to undertake various functions in connection with the inspection of tanks and/or pressure equipment can be found on the Vehicle Certification Agency (VCA) website. All inspections, examinations and tests are documented and records have to be kept for the life of the tank.

Users and owners of cryogenic tanks have legal responsibilities and a duty of care to ensure their equipment is maintained and operated safely. BCGA L12 provides advice and guidance on appropriate practice. The user must carry out routine safety inspections. Daily checks are to be carried out (refer to BCGA L11). A gas supplier will only fill a tank once they have established that it is safe to do so (refer to BCGA CP 48).

When in use a small amount of frosting and ice may be seen. Small quantities should not be a cause for concern, but the quantity of ice should be routinely monitored. If ice continues to build-up, de-icing should take place to prevent the ice build-up becoming excessive (refer to BCGA L21).


Cryogenic tank repair and modification

Any repair or modification to a cryogenic tank shall only be carried out by a competent repairer in accordance with the design codes to which it was manufactured, taking into account current requirements in regulations and legislation. Such repairs or modifications shall not affect its integrity or the operation of any protective devices (refer to BCGA CP 39).

All repairs and modifications have to be documented and records have to be kept for the life of the tank.


Cryogenic tank revalidation

Cryogenic tanks require a formal periodic assessment to ensure they are safe for continued use. This revalidation period shall be decided by a Competent Person but shall not exceed 20 years. Due to the nature of their service a shorter period for mobile tanks is recommended (refer to BCGA CP 39). When revalidation takes place a report is produced which is to be kept with the tank records for the life of the tank.


Cryogenic tank providers and disposal

BCGA member companies can provide cryogenic tanks and/or a range of services and associated equipment.

Some cryogenic tanks contain hazardous products in their vacuum space, e.g. perlite, and therefore tanks should only be disposed off by an approved competent and specialist disposal contractor. All equipment is to be rendered non-reusable as pressure equipment.

Links to a number of those providers are available below. To view the full list, please click here.



Within BCGA cryogenic tanks are the responsibility of Technical Sub-Committee (TSC) 1. Members can access information on TSC1 via the Committee Meetings page.



CP26 Bulk liquid carbon dioxide storage at users’ premises. Revision 3: 2012

01/09/2012 Codes of Practice CP26

The design, installation, operation and maintenance of bulk liquid carbon dioxide storage systems at users’ premises. All tanks up to 250,000 litres capacity are included.

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CP27 Transportable vacuum insulated containers of not more than 1000 litres volume. Revision 1: 2004

01/09/2004 Codes of Practice CP27

This code of practice applies to transportable, vacuum insulated, tanks of not more than 1,000 litres water capacity, for the following gases: Nitrogen, argon, oxygen, carbon dioxide, helium or nitrous oxide.This code provides guidance for the minimum requirements for: General safety precautions, design and construction, operation, tank management and filling, transportation, in-service examination, modifications/repairs and records.

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CP36 Cryogenic liquid storage at users’ premises. Revision 2: 2013

01/09/2013 Codes of Practice CP36

This document covers the installation of cryogenic liquid storage tanks and associated equipment at customer sites. For liquid oxygen, nitrogen and argon. Tank sizes range from 0 to 125000 litre water capacity.

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CP39 In-service requirements of pressure equipment (gas storage and gas distribution systems). Revision 2: 2017

01/09/2017 Codes of Practice CP39

Pressure systems require regular examination, inspection and maintenance to ensure the continuing integrity of the equipment and the safety of personnel. This code covers the principles and a risk based methodology to meet these requirements. It includes guidance on Written Schemes of Examination, Ageing Pressure Equipment Assessments and Revalidation of pressure vessels.

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CP46 The storage of cryogenic flammable fluids. 2016

01/09/2016 Codes of Practice CP46

This document covers cryogenic flammable liquid storage tanks and associated equipment at customer sites. Tank sizes range from 0 to 125000 litre water capacity. It provides guidance on their design, installation, commissioning and the operation of cryogenic flammable liquid storage installations.

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GN17 BCGA policy and guidance for the safe filling of third-party owned and/or maintained tanks.

01/09/2021 Guidance Notes GN17

This document is obsolete and has been replaced by Code of Practice 48, The safe filling of third-party owned and/or maintained tanks.

You can download a copy of CP48 from our Publications Section, under Codes of Practice.

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GN19 Cryogenic sample storage systems (Biostores) – Guidance on design and operation. 2012

01/09/2012 Guidance Notes GN19

This document is obsolete and has been replaced by Code of Practice 45.

You can download Code of Practice 45 here.

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TIS23 BCGA Policy regarding the ongoing safety and integrity of static cryogenic liquid storage tanks. Revision 1: 2022

17/02/2022 Technical Information Sheets TIS23

BCGA allow a revalidation, in lieu of an internal examination, of static cryogenic liquid storage vessels to be carried out. This document sets out the rationale and evidence in support of this policy.

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L11 Safety checks for cryogenic tanks. Revision 2: 2020

01/07/2021 Leaflets L11

BCGA Leaflet 11 outlines some daily safety checks that users responsible for cryogenic tanks are to carry out. These are independent of safety checks which gas supply companies’ drivers will conduct at delivery times.

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L12 Liquid gas storage tanks – your responsibilities. Revision 1. 2017

01/08/2017 Leaflets L12

An information leaflet which reminds users and owners of liquid gas storage tanks of their legal duties and responsibilities to ensure the equipment is installed, maintained and operated safely.

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L21 Cryogenic installations. Managing ice build-up. 2021

21/07/2021 Leaflets L21

Outlines the problems associated with an increasing quantity of ice formation within a cryogenic installation and provides a methodology for safely removing the ice.

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BCGA publish several publications providing advice and guidance on the on how to use, store, transport and handle cryogenic gases safely. All BCGA publications are accessible via the Publications page.